Life Expectancy




UNDP Human Development Index 2022: Main Components

Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)UNDP, Human Development Report 2023-24

The Human Development Index (HDI), devised by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), serves as a composite measure to reflect key achievements in human development. It encompasses three principal dimensions: health, education, and standard of living, each represented by specific indicators. The health dimension is assessed through life expectancy at birth, education through both expected years of schooling (EYS) and mean years of schooling (MYS), and standard of living through Gross National Income (GNI) per capita, adjusted for purchasing power parity (PPP).

This map looks closer at the data for the three dimensions making up the overall Human Development Index, as well as the overall HDI score for 2022 and the country rank in 2022. 2022 is the latest year for which data is available.

To facilitate comparison across different contexts, the indicators are normalized on a scale from 0 to 1, using established minimum and maximum values (goalposts). The HDI itself is calculated as the geometric mean of these normalized indices, ensuring that improvements in any dimension are equally weighted.

  • Health: This dimension evaluates the overall well-being and longevity of a population.
  • Education: Combines EYS, which forecasts the total years of education a child is expected to undertake, and MYS, which reflects the educational attainment of the adult population.
  • Standard of Living: Assessed by GNI per capita (PPP), this dimension accounts for economic prosperity and the ability of individuals to access goods and services.

A comparison between Switzerland, the highest-ranking country, and Somalia, among the lowest, starkly illustrates the vast disparities in development across these dimensions:

  • Life Expectancy at Birth: In Switzerland, life expectancy stands at 84.3 years, among the highest in the world. Conversely, Somalia’s life expectancy is significantly lower at 56.1 years, highlighting critical health and living condition disparities.
  • Education: In Switzerland, the expected years of schooling reach 16.6 years, coupled with a mean of 13.9 years of schooling already achieved. Somalia’s figures are much lower, with 7.6 expected years of schooling and a mean of only 1.9 years, underscoring the acute educational challenges faced by its population.
  • Gross National Income Per Capita: The economic divide is equally striking. Switzerland’s gross national income per capita stands at approximately $69,432 (2017 PPP$), reflecting its affluent economy. Somalia’s figure is $1,072 (2017 PPP$), indicating severe economic hardship.

To explore the HDI data in further detail: